Penn State Dairy Herd

West Barns
New West Barns, built 1897-98, were located below Rec Hall at the intersection of Pollock Road and Atherton Street.

Cows were present on campus as early as 1865. They were housed in the "Old West" barn complex (where Carnegie Building is now located) until 1897.

These structures had been built prior to 1865, and, in addition to the dairy barn, one building was used for classes and a second one served as a creamery. An undated photo of the original barns shows a number of outbuildings, including a horse stable, piggery, butcher shop, laundry, and creamery. One historical reference indicated that the butcher would ring a bell to let the townspeople know when meat was available for sale.

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The first Old East Barns (destroyed by fire in 1891) with Mt. Nittany in the background.

The barns and outbuildings were destroyed by fire in 1897. New barns were built a bit farther to the west (south of the current Recreation Hall location). These were utilized until the dairy herd was moved to new barns at the corner of Curtin and Shortlidge in 1915.

A report in the Alumni News (circa 1934) indicated that the West barns were gone and that the herdsman's house was serving as a caddy house for the new golf course.

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Armsby built the Ag. Experiment Station barns, known as East Barns, in an area where Fenske Lab and Buckhout Building now sit. In front center sits Hemlock Hall (a classroom), in back center sits the barn, far right is the power plant and to the left is the creamery. These barns burned in 1891.

A second herd was housed in the "Old East" barns, at the site of the present Fenske Lab. These barns were built in 1869 and housed the horses and machinery used on the college farms. Later, Armsby added facilities for dairy cattle, swine, and a creamery in support of his nutrition research program.

The Agricultural Experiment Station headquarters were located north of the East Barn complex and east of Armsby. This building served at one time as housing for the Agricultural Education Department and is currently used by the College of Arts and Architecture.

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Built in 1892, these Old East Barns replaced those destroyed by fire a year earlier. The corn crib is located in foreground, a pig pen was to the right and the upper story of Superintendent Patterson's House is shown in the background. The skyline shows Mt. Nittany.

In November 1891 a fire destroyed most of the "Old East" barns, and new facilities were constructed. Photos before and after 1891 show two different sets of buildings. The new construction was designed to meet Armsby's needs and also to house the horses and machinery.

It operated as a dairy farm with 18 acres set aside for the famous Jordan Fertility Plots. The farm provided the feed for the herds in the East Barn Complex (also known as the Experimental Farm). Sales from the farm were confined to dairy products and livestock and were used to support the research and operational costs.

The buildings housed 43 head of dairy cattle, including six box stalls, plus space for eight horses. When the barns were rebuilt, the original herd was sold because it had become infected with brucellosis.

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A view of the power plant with some of Armsby's Guernsey cows.

New animals were purchased including a purebred Guernsey bull. In 1894 a creamery and an ice house were built, making it possible to manufacture butter. A building known as "Hemlock Hall" was erected and used for instructional purposes.

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The second Old East Barn showing Farms Superintendent Patterson's house (right) and the first fertility plots (front center). Photo taken in 1888.

Poultry facilities were also built nearby. The dairy operation at this location probably ceased when the new barns were ready in 1915.

Creamery operations were likely moved to the Patterson Building creamery when it opened in 1904. In later years, these barns housed the horses, a blacksmith shop, and farm machinery. The machine shop was torn down in 1938, and the last of the "Old East" barns was removed around 1940.

Author: Donald L. Ace, Professor of Dairy Science